Chagall Marc

Chagall Marc

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Marc Chagall was born in Vitebsk (Russia) in 1887, the eldest son of a Jewish family of nine children. At the end of his high school studies (1906), he frequented Jehuda Pen's atelier for about two years. The Zvanseva school and Léon Bakst's studio in Saint-Petersbourg will follow the following year. In 1910, Chagall obtained a scholarship from a patron of the arts, which allowed him to go to Paris. He settled at the Ruche in 1911, worked intensely and met Guillaume Apollinaire, André Salmon, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars with whom he bonded particularly, exhibiting for the first time at the Salon of Independents. In 1914, the Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin organized his first solo exhibition. He returned to Russia for a few months at the beginning of the war, but then he stayed there for several years, got married and had his first child. At the outbreak of the revolution in 1917, he became director of the Vitebsk School of Fine Arts, organized teaching by inviting artists such as Pougny, El Lissitzky, Malevitch. After a clash with the supremacist current in 1920, Chagall resigned and went to live in Moscow. The following year, the drafting of " My life ", his autobiography, began. He made his first engravings in 1922 to illustrate the work. He reaches Paris in 1923, Vollard will commission many works from him. His life was then studded with many new encounters: Tériade, Maillol, Rouault, Vlaminck, Bonnard. 1926 is the year of his first exhibition in the United States. In 1927, Bernheim-Jeune becomes his art dealer. In 1930, Vollard proposed him a work on the Bible, a work that would be completed only in 1956. The 1930s were marked by the artist's numerous travels, by the intensification of anti-Semitism more tangible than ever in Poland and by the French nationality acquired by the artist in 1937, the year in which his works will be removed from the walls of German museums! The family takes refuge in Saint-Dié/Loire, then in Gordes in 1940. 1941 will be the year of departure for the United States and the year in which Pierre Matisse becomes the new artist's dealer. He returned to Paris after the war in 1946, still greatly saddened by the loss of his wife Bella (1944). After the MOMA was consecrated with a retrospective, in 1947 many exhibitions were dedicated to him throughout Europe (Paris, Amsterdam, Bern, Zurich). He initially settles in Orgeval, stays for a long time in Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, then in Vence in 1950, since Aimé Maeght is his new art dealer. Chagall takes up ceramics, creates wall paintings and his first sculptures. The following 35 years of the artist are characterized by intense work (paintings, frescoes, decorations, mosaics, stained glass, etc.) and will see the artist achieve the maximum recognition and honors, which is due to one of the masters of the twentieth th century. Leaving Russia in 1922, after a short stay in Berlin, he settled again in France: he made admirable series of engravings (for his autobiography, for Gogol's Dead Souls, etc.), in paintings, alongside his favorite themes, a repertoire of images that blends human figures, animals, objects, landscapes, alongside motifs related to the biblical world (in 1931 he made a trip to Palestine to rediscover impressions, atmospheres) and, from 1935, the symbolic motif of the crucifixion. In 1941, at the invitation of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, he went to the United States. Returning to France in 1947, from 1950 he settled in Vence, and also devoted himself to sculpture and ceramics. Alongside the rich pictorial and graphic production, notable contributions to the theater, Chagall created numerous monumental works: murals for the foyer of the Watergate Theater in London (1949), for the Paris Opera (1963-64), for the Metropolitan of New York (1966), stained glass for the cathedral of Metz (1959-68), for the synagogue of the Haddash hospital in Jerusalem (1960), for the cathedral of Reims (1974), mosaics for the new parliament of Jerusalem (1966 ), for the University of Nice (1968). In 1973 the Musée national du message biblique Marc Chagall was inaugurated in Nice, consisting of the artist's donation of over three hundred works (paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, etc.). The Message Biblique Museum was inaugurated in Nice in 1973. Chagall died in Saint-Paul-de-Vence on March 28, 1988.

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The works of Chagall Marc

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